New York is vehemently anti-life, with virtually no protections for women or preborn children. After Roe, abortion continues to be legal up to twenty-four weeks gestation with exceptions for the “absence of fetal viability,” or the life or health of the mother. In 2019, New York passed the Reproductive Health Act which states that “[e]very individual who becomes pregnant has the fundamental right to choose to carry the pregnancy to term, to give birth to a child, or to have an abortion.” It also prevents New York from “interfer[ing] with the exercise of [this right].”
The New York State House and Senate are controlled by Democrats. In 2023, the legislature passed a bill that requires state universities to provide chemical abortion pills to students either on-campus or through referrals. Recently, the state allocated over $100 million in public funding to go towards increasing access to “reproductive health care.” In 2024, New Yorkers will face a pro-abortion ballot initiative that seeks to enshrine a “right” to abortion in the state, which will allow abortion-on-demand.
Judges on the New York Court of Appeals, the state’s highest court, are selected through a hybrid Missouri-style judicial nomination system, whereby the governor chooses from a list created by a nominating commission. New York Supreme Court judges are chosen in partisan elections. There are currently a few conscience rights cases in litigation in state and federal court. Additionally, a pro-life sidewalk counselor is challenging a buffer zone law in federal court.
Governor Kathy Hochul is a strong supporter of abortion. In 2021, Governor Hochul announced she would “Take aggressive action to cement New York State as a safe harbor for those seeking abortion,” and directed state agencies to work on an abortion public information campaign, including a patient bill of rights. Governor Hochul specifically directed the state health department to update regulations so that woman could access chemical abortion drugs more easily through telehealth. In 2023, Governor Hochul signed a law that will shield New York abortion providers from civil and criminal liability if they prescribe dangerous chemical abortion bills to patients in states where abortion is illegal.
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New York Abortion Quick Facts
- Abortion is legal in New York.
- New York limits abortions after viability, defined as 24 weeks gestational age.
- Chemical abortion pills need tighter regulations in New York and can be prescribed via telemedicine.
New York’s Pro-Life Laws Across the Spectrum
Americans United for Life advances the human right to life across the spectrum of issues confronting the dignity of the human person. AUL’s comprehensive analysis of New York’s state laws on human life span the full spectrum of life issues from abortion, to health and safety protections, to patient informed consent, to conscience rights and bioethics.
New York’s Pro-Life Laws Key
- Yes, New York has this law and it is enforceable
- New York has this law in place, but it is currently not in effect due to litigation
- No, New York has no such law in place
- Not Applicable
- To Be Determined
State Constitutional Amendments and Statutes
Americans United for Life covers broad pro-life laws in this section. This includes both state constitutional amendments and state statutes designed to protect preborn human life. FOCA/RHA (or Freedom of Choice Acts/Reproductive Health Acts) are laws designed to enshrine and expand abortion and abortion businesses.
- Constitutional amendment stating no right to abortion
- Constitutional amendment preventing state funding of abortion
- Conditional law prohibiting abortion when Roe is overturned
- Pre-Roe abortion ban that will take effect when Roe is overturned
- FOCA/RHA, codifying an abortion right in state law
Mother-Child Gestational and Procedural Protections
States can protect both mother and child by limiting abortion by gestational age or prohibiting gruesome abortion methods. This category also includes life-saving care requirements for a child born-alive after an abortion, and health and safety requirements for a woman undergoing a chemical abortion.
- Gestational protections by age/week for preborn children
- Basic medical care for infant children born alive during attempted abortions
- Partial-birth (D&X) abortion ban
- Dismemberment (D&E) abortion ban
- Telemedicine abortion ban
- Follow up scheduled with patient for abortion pills complications
Prenatal Non-Discrimination (PRENDA) Protections
Increasingly states are enacting laws to protect unborn babies from eugenic abortions based on gender, disability, or race. Some states provide life-affirming resources for families who receive a diagnosis of a possible genetic anomaly like Down syndrome so they know that they’ll be supported.
- Protection against discrimination based on gender
- Protection against discrimination due to prenatal diagnosis
- Protection against discrimination based on race
- State-provided life-affirming resources for parents and families
Informed Consent Laws
Many states require a woman to give informed consent to an abortion, which holds abortion to a similar standard as other medical procedures. These protections include the disclosure of an abortion procedure’s nature and risks, the performance of an ultrasound to date the pregnancy and allow a woman to meet her unborn child if she chooses, and the time for a woman to reflect on this grave decision.
- Basic informed consent for mothers concerning abortion
- Patient signature or written confirmation of informed consent from provider
- Patient is provided state-sponsored informed consent website/information
- Reflection period (48 hours) protecting a mother’s discernment and choice
- An ultrasound is required to give a mother the opportunity to meet their child
- Information on risks of abortion procedure
- Information on the possibility of abortion pill reversal care
Abortion Reporting in Public Health Data
Reporting requirements ensure the government and public have a comprehensive view of abortion in the state when making important public policy decisions. This data includes basic information on instances of abortion, the gestational age of the aborted unborn child, demographics, procedure type, and complications.
- Basic reporting on instances of abortion
- Abortion reporting includes gestational age data
- Abortion reporting includes demographic information
- Abortion reporting includes procedure type
- Complication reporting
- Anonymized/aggregate data is made available to the public
- Anonymized/aggregate data is submitted to the CDC
Parental Rights and Protection of Minors
States protect a minor considering abortion by involving her parents in her life-changing decision, but also provide guidelines for judicial bypass to parental involvement when it is necessary. Other laws included in this section are safe haven laws which create a safe pathway to give up an infant and prevent child abandonment, and the dissemination of information on perinatal hospice to parents of unborn children with fetal anomalies.
- Parental consent before a minor obtains an abortion
- Parental notice of a minor obtaining an abortion
- Judicial bypass limits
- Mandatory reporting of suspected abuse
- Safe haven protections (30 days)
- Perinatal hospice resources
Basic Health and Safety Standards
These laws bring abortion businesses up to the health and safety standards of medical facilities. States may limit both chemical and surgical abortion procedures to physicians, require the physician be licensed by the state, and require emergency transfer agreements or admitting privileges for the physician or the facility to protect a patient if she suffers post-abortion complications.
- Established health and safety standards for abortion businesses
- Basic regulatory inspections for abortion businesses
- Only physicians can perform abortions (all methods)
- Physicians required to be licensed in the state
- Emergency transfer/admitting privilege patient protections
- Physician’s license/credentials are disclosed to patients
Legal Recognition of Human Dignity for Preborn Persons
This section covers the ways states recognize the human dignity of unborn children. States increasingly require dignified disposition of fetal remains, whether from abortion or miscarriage. The law may provide for the issuance of a fetal death or stillbirth certificate. States may also protect the dignity of unborn children by prohibiting fetal experimentation and banning the sale or transfer of human fetal remains.
- Dignified disposition of fetal remains required
- Parents may request dignified disposition
- Human fetal death or stillbirth certificate issued to recognize the life of human persons (20 weeks)
- Sale or transfer of human fetal remains prohibited
- Fetal experimentation banned
Fetal Homicide and Wrongful Death/Life
Fetal homicide laws establish criminal penalties for the death of an unborn child. Wrongful death suits provide a civil cause of action for the death of an unborn child. A prohibition on wrongful life/birth suits affirms that no life is “unwanted.”
- Fetal homicide criminalization
- Fetal homicide law in place from the moment of conception
- Wrongful death suits
- Prohibition on wrongful life/birth suits
Assisted Suicide and Patient Care
These laws protect end-of-life patients from physician-assisted suicide, a practice that exploits vulnerable patients, has little government oversight, and undermines modern medicine. The Life-Sustaining Care Act ensures healthcare professionals may not override a minor patient or her surrogate’s decision to obtain or continue life-sustaining care. States with patient nondiscrimination acts protect patients from age or disability discrimination.
- Assisted suicide prohibition
- Life-sustaining care act
- Patient non-discrimination on the basis of age or disability
Bioethics, Human Cloning, and Embryo Research
As medical technology evolves, states increasingly enact pro-life bioethics policies to reaffirm human dignity and ban cloning. These laws also require ethical medical practices, ban destructive embryo research, and regulate assisted reproductive technology.
- Bans human cloning
- Bans taxpayer funding for human cloning
- Bans destructive embryo research
- Encourages ethical alternatives to embryo research
- Requires informed consent for assisted reproductive technologies
- Regulates egg harvesting
Healthcare Freedom of Conscience
These laws protect the freedom of conscience of healthcare professionals, institutions, and pharmacists against forced participation in assisted suicide and abortion. States also safeguard the conscience rights of healthcare professionals and institutions against unethical medical research.
- Individuals protected against abortion participation
- Public/Private institutions protected against abortion participation
- Pharmacists protected against abortion participation
- Individuals protected against participation in unethical research
- Private/public institutions protected against participation in unethical research
- Individuals protected against participation in assisted suicide
- Private/public institutions protected against participation in assisted suicide
- Pharmacists protected against participation in assisted suicide
New York Pro-Life Legislation Tracker
New York Abortion Inspection Initiative
New York has only minimal regulation of abortion and does not appear to inspect facilities regularly. AUL submitted a public records request, under the New York Freedom of Information Law, N.Y. Pub. Off. Law sec. 84 et seq., to the New York Department of Health. The documents provided to AUL from New York were carefully redacted, eliminating all facility names or potential identifying information and appearing to redact information that could prove detrimental to abortion facilities. An example of the excessive redaction is a report from August 2012 (the specific date in August was redacted), which states:
Based on findings from document review and interviews, the care provided to Patient A in connection with a [redacted] abortion per- formed at the [redacted] did not meet generally accepted standards of professional practice for patient safety. Up to date patient information and necessary equipment / supplies were not immediately available for the procedure and management of any complications that might occur. Also, during the emergency that did occur in this case, [redacted] staff did not [redacted] and [redacted] per the facility’s patient emergency procedures.
NUMBER OF REPORTS: 8
DATE RANGE: 2012–2018