After Roe, a pre-Roe statute would prohibit abortion unless an abortion is necessary to preserve the woman’s life. However, Michigan’s Court of Claims permanently enjoined the law in September 2022, so abortion is currently only limited after viability. In November 2022, Michigan voters passed an amendment to the state constitution to add a “fundamental right to reproductive freedom, which entails the right to make and effectuate decisions about all matters relating to pregnancy,” including abortion.
Michigan still has informed consent protections, including a 24-hour reflection period, offering of an ultrasound, and parental consent for minors under age 18. In 2021, the state house and senate both passed resolutions affirming the right to life of every unborn child. The state house also declared May 13th as Pregnancy Resource Awareness Day beginning in 2021. Michigan has around 100 pregnancy resource centers that provide life-affirming services to women and families.
Michigan’s has a popular judicial selection system, with candidates nominated by party convention running in a general election without listing a party affiliation. According to Ballotpedia, the Michigan Supreme Court has three judges on the court appointed by a Republican governor, one judge was appointed by a Democratic governor, and three judges were selected in a nonpartisan election.
Unfortunately, re-elected Governor Gretchen Whitmer is an outspoken proponent of abortion. She, along with Planned Parenthood, filed a lawsuit alleging Michigan’s pre-Roe law is unconstitutional. In 2021, Governor Whitmer line-item vetoed portions of the state budget to remove millions in funding for pro-life activities, including pregnancy resource centers.
AUL’s Unsafe project uncovered numerous citations in inspection reports. Abortion facilities consistently failed to sterilize medical instruments, train staff, and secure and record medications. There also were numerous emergency transfers of patients to hospital emergency departments.
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Michigan Abortion Quick Facts
- Abortion is legal in Michigan.
- Chemical abortion pills could be more strongly regulated in Michigan.
Michigan’s Pro-Life Laws Across the Spectrum
Americans United for Life advances the human right to life across the spectrum of issues confronting the dignity of the human person. AUL’s comprehensive analysis of Michigan’s state laws on human life span the full spectrum of life issues from abortion, to health and safety protections, to patient informed consent, to conscience rights and bioethics.
Michigan’s Pro-Life Laws Key
- Yes, Michigan has this law and it is enforceable
- Michigan has this law in place, but it is currently not in effect due to litigation
- No, Michigan has no such law in place
- Not Applicable
- To Be Determined
State Constitutional Amendments and Statutes
Americans United for Life covers broad pro-life laws in this section. This includes both state constitutional amendments and state statutes designed to protect preborn human life. FOCA/RHA (or Freedom of Choice Acts/Reproductive Health Acts) are laws designed to enshrine and expand abortion and abortion businesses.
- Constitutional amendment stating no right to abortion
- Constitutional amendment preventing state funding of abortion
- Conditional law prohibiting abortion when Roe is overturned
- Pre-Roe abortion ban that will take effect when Roe is overturned
- FOCA/RHA, codifying an abortion right in state law
Mother-Child Gestational and Procedural Protections
States can protect both mother and child by limiting abortion by gestational age or prohibiting gruesome abortion methods. This category also includes life-saving care requirements for a child born-alive after an abortion, and health and safety requirements for a woman undergoing a chemical abortion.
- Gestational protections by age/week for preborn children
- Basic medical care for infant children born alive during attempted abortions
- Partial-birth (D&X) abortion ban
- Dismemberment (D&E) abortion ban
- Telemedicine abortion ban
- Follow up scheduled with patient for abortion pills complications
Prenatal Non-Discrimination (PRENDA) Protections
Increasingly states are enacting laws to protect unborn babies from eugenic abortions based on gender, disability, or race. Some states provide life-affirming resources for families who receive a diagnosis of a possible genetic anomaly like Down syndrome so they know that they’ll be supported.
- Protection against discrimination based on gender
- Protection against discrimination due to prenatal diagnosis
- Protection against discrimination based on race
- State-provided life-affirming resources for parents and families
Informed Consent Laws
Many states require a woman to give informed consent to an abortion, which holds abortion to a similar standard as other medical procedures. These protections include the disclosure of an abortion procedure’s nature and risks, the performance of an ultrasound to date the pregnancy and allow a woman to meet her unborn child if she chooses, and the time for a woman to reflect on this grave decision.
- Basic informed consent for mothers concerning abortion
- Patient signature or written confirmation of informed consent from provider
- Patient is provided state-sponsored informed consent website/information
- Reflection period (24 hours) protecting a mother’s discernment and choice
- An ultrasound is required to give a mother the opportunity to meet their child
- Information on risks of abortion procedure
- Information on the possibility of abortion pill reversal care
Abortion Reporting in Public Health Data
Reporting requirements ensure the government and public have a comprehensive view of abortion in the state when making important public policy decisions. This data includes basic information on instances of abortion, the gestational age of the aborted unborn child, demographics, procedure type, and complications.
- Basic reporting on instances of abortion
- Abortion reporting includes gestational age data
- Abortion reporting includes demographic information
- Abortion reporting includes procedure type
- Complication reporting
- Anonymized/aggregate data is made available to the public
- Anonymized/aggregate data is submitted to the CDC
Parental Rights and Protection of Minors
States protect a minor considering abortion by involving her parents in her life-changing decision, but also provide guidelines for judicial bypass to parental involvement when it is necessary. Other laws included in this section are safe haven laws which create a safe pathway to give up an infant and prevent child abandonment, and the dissemination of information on perinatal hospice to parents of unborn children with fetal anomalies.
- Parental consent before a minor obtains an abortion
- Parental notice of a minor obtaining an abortion
- Judicial bypass limits
- Mandatory reporting of suspected abuse
- Safe haven protections (72 hours)
- Perinatal hospice resources
Basic Health and Safety Standards
These laws bring abortion businesses up to the health and safety standards of medical facilities. States may limit both chemical and surgical abortion procedures to physicians, require the physician be licensed by the state, and require emergency transfer agreements or admitting privileges for the physician or the facility to protect a patient if she suffers post-abortion complications.
- Established health and safety standards for abortion businesses
- Basic regulatory inspections for abortion businesses
- Only physicians can perform abortions (all methods)
- Physicians required to be licensed in the state
- Emergency transfer/admitting privilege patient protections
- Physician’s license/credentials are disclosed to patients
Legal Recognition of Human Dignity for Preborn Persons
This section covers the ways states recognize the human dignity of unborn children. States increasingly require dignified disposition of fetal remains, whether from abortion or miscarriage. The law may provide for the issuance of a fetal death or stillbirth certificate. States may also protect the dignity of unborn children by prohibiting fetal experimentation and banning the sale or transfer of human fetal remains.
- Dignified disposition of fetal remains required
- Parents may request dignified disposition
- Human fetal death or stillbirth certificate issued to recognize the life of human persons (20 weeks)
- Sale or transfer of human fetal remains prohibited
- Fetal experimentation banned
Fetal Homicide and Wrongful Death/Life
Fetal homicide laws establish criminal penalties for the death of an unborn child. Wrongful death suits provide a civil cause of action for the death of an unborn child. A prohibition on wrongful life/birth suits affirms that no life is “unwanted.”
- Fetal homicide criminalization
- Fetal homicide law in place from the moment of conception
- Wrongful death suits
- Prohibition on wrongful life/birth suits
Assisted Suicide and Patient Care
These laws protect end-of-life patients from physician-assisted suicide, a practice that exploits vulnerable patients, has little government oversight, and undermines modern medicine. The Life-Sustaining Care Act ensures healthcare professionals may not override a minor patient or her surrogate’s decision to obtain or continue life-sustaining care. States with patient nondiscrimination acts protect patients from age or disability discrimination.
- Assisted suicide prohibition
- Life-sustaining care act
- Patient non-discrimination on the basis of age or disability
Bioethics, Human Cloning, and Embryo Research
As medical technology evolves, states increasingly enact pro-life bioethics policies to reaffirm human dignity and ban cloning. These laws also require ethical medical practices, ban destructive embryo research, and regulate assisted reproductive technology.
- Bans human cloning
- Bans taxpayer funding for human cloning
- Bans destructive embryo research
- Encourages ethical alternatives to embryo research
- Requires informed consent for assisted reproductive technologies
- Regulates egg harvesting
Healthcare Freedom of Conscience
These laws protect the freedom of conscience of healthcare professionals, institutions, and pharmacists against forced participation in assisted suicide and abortion. States also safeguard the conscience rights of healthcare professionals and institutions against unethical medical research.
- Individuals protected against abortion participation
- Public/Private institutions protected against abortion participation
- Pharmacists protected against abortion participation
- Individuals protected against participation in unethical research
- Private/public institutions protected against participation in unethical research
- Individuals protected against participation in assisted suicide
- Private/public institutions protected against participation in assisted suicide
- Pharmacists protected against participation in assisted suicide
Michigan Pro-Life Legislation Tracker
AUL’s public records request to the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA) under the Michigan Freedom of Information Act, M.C.L.S. § 15.231 et seq., yielded dozens of inspection reports involving multiple doctors with complaints, lawsuits, and medical board disciplinary actions. There have also been numerous 911 calls and emergency transfers to hospital emergency departments documented. Clinics consistently failed to ster- ilize instruments, secure and record medications, and train staff.
The findings of a lawsuit against Michigan abortion providers for injuries inflicted during a second trimester abortion illustrate the consistent failures of these facilities. A patient charged abortionists Dr. Sharpe and Dr. Kalo with failure to inform the patient of what to expect and risks involved with a second trimester abortion. Investigators found that on the morning of the procedure, the patient and husband did not receive counseling or discuss informed consent. There was no Registered Nurse (RN) present on the day of the procedure, and no vital signs were taken during the procedure. There was no documentation found of the medications given the patient, including IV record, time or route of administration, nor was there documentation that vital signs were monitored. When emergency responders arrived, the patient was on the treatment table with an adult diaper on, and there was blood on the treatment floor. The patient alleged she was walked downstairs to the back exit, but it could not be substantiated how she exited the building. The ER doctor reported that the patient was pasty white, tachycardic, and hypotensive upon arrival, and had significant internal bleeding. He repaired a perforated uterus and extracted a retained fetal skull. Dr. Sharpe was found to have performed another second term abortion without an RN present on June 17, 2014. No quality review program has been implemented since this event, according to inspectors.
NUMBER OF REPORTS: 78
DATE RANGE: 2012–2019